Innovation Forum VI - 2014
Crisis, innovation and transition

1, 2 and 3 October 2014  (Pôle universitaire Léonard De Vinci, Paris la Défense)

Special sessions > The heterogeneity of entrepreneurship

Over the last 30 years, entrepreneurship has assumed a new importance in developed economies, under quite different forms. This evolution can be understood at many levels: micro, meso and macroeconomic.

On the microeconomic level, two types of questions can be asked about the entrepreneur him-self/herself: first of all, who is he/she (age, gender, professional experience, and so on)? What career has he/she had (has he/she been a salaried worker? Is he/she a serial entrepreneur? Etc). What are their motivations (innovation, to create his/her own occupation, to be independent?). To escape unemployment)? What activities have been created (new products, services, high technologies)? On the other hand, from the enterprise’s point of view and the evolution of its organization (inter and intra enterprise): from the integrated fordist enterprise to the network enterprise which has developed contractual relations with subcontractors and suppliers, etc. What is the place of intrapreneurship that many firms have developed to make their organizations more flexible and to conquer new markets.

On the meso-economic level, the issue is the development of new activities in various sectors, in the technologies of information and communication, but not exclusively; the food-industry (environmental crisis, demographic growth, conception of new food products), but also pharmacy and health (ageing population) which have been transformed by the entry of new firms in the market. How are new activities created to develop a new cycle of economic growth? And how does the territory-effect play a significant role (externalization and agglomeration effects) in the sectoral dynamics of entrepreneurship?

On the macroeconomic level, the question is the following: how can entrepreneurs create a new economic wave of economic growth which will produce new innovations and jobs, challenging organizational routines of big enterprises and the balance of power between enterprises. Entrepreneurship plays an important role to renew the organizational structure of developed economies. Can we show the existence of cycles of business creation over a long period of time according to the economic context? Moreover, according to studies on economic cycles, longitudinal case studies of the evolution of the activities of the entrepreneurial organization can be a response to find a new economic engine for enterprises. Are enterprises which were born during times of economic crisis a response to a special need or can they evolve to face future kinds of environment.



Sophie Boutillier, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale-Lille Nord de France

Thierry Burger-Helmchen, Université de Strasbourg

Dimitri Uzunidis, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale-Lille Nord de France

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